Microarray analysis of exstrophic human bladder smooth muscle

Jason Hipp, Karl Erik Andersson, Tae Gyun Kwon, Eun Kyoung Kwak, James Yoo, Anthony Atala

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE: To compare the genetic profiles of 'healthy' bladder smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and exstrophic SMCs (ESMCs) to identify genes that are over- and under-expressed in ESMCs, thus providing a molecular evaluation of the quality and therapeutic potential of ESMC tissue. PATIENTS, MATERIAL AND METHODS: Classical bladder exstrophy is a rare disorder, occurring in 1 in 30 000 live births. Studies have shown that exstrophic bladders are developmentally immature at birth. After surgical closure, the bladder typically undergoes abnormal remodelling (such as over-expression of collagen III) throughout early development. We hypothesized that the predominant genetic differences between normal SMCs and ESMCs are in the developmental genes. This hypothesis was tested by the use of microarray analysis. Bladder SM biopsies were taken from 'healthy' subjects undergoing bladder surgeries for other conditions (for example, urinary reflux) and patients with bladder exstrophy. Cells were expanded in vitro, and total RNA was isolated and hybridized to the Affymetrix U133A GeneChip® (Affymetrix Inc., Santa Clara, CA, USA) by the Wake Forest University School of Medicine Affymetrix core facility, using standard protocols. RESULTS: We created a genetic signature consisting of 961 genes that are over-expressed and 432 genes that are under-expressed in ESMCs. Analysis of these signatures identified an over-expression of inflammatory genes and an under-expression of developmental genes. CONCLUSION: Our data is in concordance with previous studies and histological data showing that ESMCs are developmentally immature relative to healthy bladder SM. The clinical implication of the ESMC genetic signature is that it provides a list of targets that can be (i) manipulated ex vivo and/or in vivo to induce differentiation (the completion of development) and (ii) used as biomarkers to explain the variability of the clinical symptoms after surgical closure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)100-105
Number of pages6
JournalBJU International
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Affymetrix
  • Bladder exstrophy
  • Microarray
  • Smooth muscle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


Dive into the research topics of 'Microarray analysis of exstrophic human bladder smooth muscle'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this