MGD: Definition Versus Dry Eye Disease, Risk Factors

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8 Scopus citations


Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is defined as any functional disorder of the meibomian glands. While MGD is commonly associated with lipid tear deficiency, patients with MGD may also be asymptomatic and/or may have normal tear film parameters. Although there are no standardized diagnostic criteria for the disease, epidemiologic studies have revealed that MGD is very common, especially in Asian populations. Risk factors for MGD include both ocular and systemic conditions. Ocular conditions specifically found to associate with MGD include contact lens wear and the use of glaucoma medications. Systemically, older age, lower androgen levels, rosacea, and Sjogren’s syndrome have all been associated with disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)58-64
Number of pages7
JournalCurrent Ophthalmology Reports
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2014


  • Androgen deficiency
  • Contact lens wear
  • Glaucoma medication
  • Lipid tear deficiency
  • Meibomian gland dysfunction
  • Nutrition
  • Rocasea
  • Sjogren’s syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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