Some neonatal species fail to develop the expected degree of hypercapnia during hypoventilation with mechanical loads. We studied 13 spontaneously breathing, sedated piglets (1-9 days old), grouped by age as young (≤3 day old) or old (>3 day old). Baseline measurements of minute ventilation, arterial blood pressure (BP), cardiac output, and O2 consumption were repeated after continuous (inspiratory and expiratory) flow-resistive loading of 330 cmH2O · l-1 · s for 10 min. Older animals [n = 6, age 6.6 ± 1.9 (SD) days, wt 1.99 ± 0.5 kg] increased metabolic rate (9.8 ± 1.4 to 10.5 ± 1.3 ml · min-1 · kg-1, P < 0.01), whereas younger animals (n = 7, 2.6 ± 0.6 days, 1.37 ± 0.3 kg) invariably decreased metabolic rate with loading (9.7 ± 1.6 to 7.9 ± 2.6 ml · min-1 · kg-1); changes were different between groups (P < 0.02). Although ventilation decreased with loading in both groups (P < 0.01), younger animals showed a relatively greater fall from baseline values (38 vs. 27%). Despite differences in the degree of hypoventilation, arterial CO2 tension increased similarly in both groups (21%). BP increased (P < 0.01) with loading in older but not younger animals. We conclude that the decreased metabolic rate and limited hemodynamic response in younger piglets reflect an accommodative response to hypoventilation in contrast to that of older animals, which display an adult pattern of increased metabolic rate and BP with loaded breathing.
- metabolic rate
- oxygen consumption
- resistive load
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
- Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation