We examined the mechanisms of toxicity of waterborne Cu to the freshwater pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The snail is one of the most sensitive species to acute Cu exposure (96h LC50, LC20: 24.9, 18.0γgl-1); they are not protected by the water quality criteria of the US EPA. Tissue Na and Ca were also reduced by Cu in the acute exposure. In contrast, during 28d chronic exposures to Cu in the presence of food, which resulted in higher DOC concentrations, there was no significant mortality but an inhibition of growth, which may reflect a re-allocation of resources to detoxification. Cu detoxification was evidenced in chronic exposure by increases in metallothionein-like protein concentrations and Cu binding to metal-rich granules, decreases in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and changes in the subcellular distribution in the soft tissues. Our results demonstrated that apart from external Cu bioavailability, compartmentalization of metals within the cells can alter toxicity of Cu to the snails.
- Pond snail
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health