Mechanisms of neuroprotection during ischemic preconditioning: Lessons from anoxic tolerance

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68 Scopus citations


Different physiological adaptations for anoxia resistance have been described in the animal kingdom. These adaptations are particularly important in organs that are highly susceptible to energy deprivation such as the heart and brain. Among vertebrates, turtles are one of the species that are highly tolerant to anoxia. In mammals however, insults such as anoxia, ischemia and hypoglycemia, all cause major histopathological events to the brain. However, in mammals even ischemic or anoxic tolerance is found when a sublethal ischemic/anoxic insult is induced sometime before a lethal ischemic/anoxic insult is induced. This phenomenon is defined as ischemic preconditioning. Better understanding of the mechanisms inducing both anoxic tolerance in turtles or ischemic preconditioning in mammals may provide novel therapeutic interventions that may aide mammalian brain to resist the ravages of cerebral ischemia. In this review, we will summarize some of the mechanisms implemented in both models of tolerance, emphasizing physiological and biochemical similarities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)291-299
Number of pages9
JournalComparative Biochemistry and Physiology - A Molecular and Integrative Physiology
Issue number2 SPEC. ISS.
StatePublished - Jun 2007


  • Anoxia
  • Ischemia
  • Neuroprotective mechanism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Physiology


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