Measurement of intracellular pH using flow cytometry with carboxy-SNARF-1

Eric Wieder, H. Hang, M. H. Fox

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

59 Scopus citations


The new intracellular pH (pH(i)) dye carboxy-seminaphthorhodafluor (SNARF-1) was compared to the established dye 2,3-dicyanohydroquinone (DCH) using flow cytometry. Both dyes give high-resolution pH(i) measurements. SNARF-1 remains trapped within cells much longer than DCH, so that pH(i) can be monitored during and after treatments with chemicals or hyperthermia. The toxicity of the dyes is similar, and both dyes can be used at concentrations that result in low toxicity to cells. Adequate staining of cells with SNARF-1 is dependent on the cell concentration. The absolute pH(i) values indicated by SNARF-1 are higher than values measured with DCH. However, the trends measured by both dyes are consistent, and both are useful for making pH(i) measurements.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)916-921
Number of pages6
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1993
Externally publishedYes



  • Dicyanohydroquinone
  • Flow cytometry
  • Intracellular pH
  • SNARF-1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Cell Biology
  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Biophysics
  • Endocrinology

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