Objective. Many children with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) have chronic problems with growth and nutrition, yet limited information is available to identify infected children at high risk for growth abnormalities. Using data from the prospective, multicenter P 2C 2 HIV study, we evaluated the relationships between maternal and infant clinical and laboratory factors and impaired growth in this cohort. Methods. Children of HIV-1-infected women were enrolled prenatally or within the first 28 days of life. Failure to thrive (FTT) was defined as an age- and sex-adjusted weight z score ≤-2.0 SD. Maternal baseline covariates included age, race, illicit drug use, zidovudine use, CD4 + T-cell count, and smoking. Infant baseline predictors included sex, race, CD4 + T-cell count, Centers for Disease Control stage, HIV-1 RNA, antiretroviral therapy, pneumonia, heart rate, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infection status. Results. The study cohort included 92 HIV-1-infected and 439 uninfected children. Infected children had a lower mean gestational age, but birth weights, lengths, and head circumferences in the 2 groups were similar. Mothers of growth-delayed infants were more likely to have smoked tobacco and used illicit drugs during pregnancy. In repeated-measures analyses of weight and length or height z scores, the means of the HIV-1-infected group were significantly lower at 6 months of age (P > .001) and remained lower throughout the first 5 years of life. In a multivariable Cox regression analysis, FTT was associated with a history of pneumonia (relative risk [RR] = 8.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.59-21.44), maternal use of cocaine, crack, or heroin during pregnancy (RR = 3.17; 95% CI: 1.51-6.66), infant CD4 + T-cell count z score (RR = 2.13 per 1 SD decrease; 95% CI: 1.25-3.57), and any antiretroviral therapy by 3 months of age (RR = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.16-6.65). After adjustment for pneumonia and antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 RNA load remained associated with FTT in the subset of children whose serum was available for viral load analysis. Conclusion. Clinical and laboratory factors associated with FTT among HIV-1-infected children include history of pneumonia, maternal illicit drug use during pregnancy, lower infant CD4 + T-cell count, exposure to antiretroviral therapy by 3 months of age (non-protease inhibitor), and HIV-1 RNA viral load.
- Failure to thrive
- Human immunodeficiency virus
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health