Management of mixed connective tissue disease

Carlos J. Lozada, Robert W. Hoffman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease manifesting as specific clinical features in the presence of antibodies reactive with the extractable nuclear antigen U1-ribonucleoprotein. It has been described across geographic and ethnic groups. The exact prevalence of MCTD is unknown, but it is usually less common than systemic lupus erythematosus, but more common than systemic sclerosis or dermatomyositis in the populations reported. The clinical features most often present in those with MCTD include: arthralgias/ arthritis, Raynaud's phenomenon, decreased esophageal motility, decreased pulmonary diffusing capacity, swollen hands and myositis. The therapeutic plan for MCTD needs to be tailored to the specific clinical manifestations present in each patient. Particular attention should be given to early recognition of pulmonary involvement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)357-367
Number of pages11
JournalFuture Rheumatology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2008


  • Bosentan
  • Corticosteroids
  • Iloprost
  • Inflammatory arthritis
  • Methotrexate
  • Mixed connective tissue disease
  • Myositis
  • Pulmonary arterial hypertension
  • Raynaud's phenomenon
  • Sildenafil
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Systemic sclerosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology


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