Management of extrapulmonary sarcoidosis: Challenges and solutions

Khalid Al-Kofahi, Peter Korsten, Christian Ascoli, Shanti Virupannavar, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Ian Chang, Naim Qaqish, Lesley A. Saketkoo, Robert P. Baughman, Nadera J. Sweiss

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


Background: Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystem disease of unknown etiology characterized by noncaseating granulomas that most often involves the lungs, but frequently has extrapulmonary manifestations, which might be difficult to treat in individual patients. Objective: To review different disease manifestations, focusing on extrapulmonary organ systems, and to provide treatment options for refractory cases. Materials and methods: We performed a literature search using Medline and Google Scholar for individual or combined keywords of "sarcoidosis, extrapulmonary, treatment, kidney, neurosarcoidosis, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, transplantation, musculoskeletal, rheumatology, arthritis, and skin". Peer-reviewed articles, including review articles, clinical trials, observational trials, and case reports that were published in English were included. References from retrieved articles were also manually searched for relevant articles. Results and conclusion: Isolated involvement of a single organ or organ system is rare in sarcoidosis, and thus all patients must be thoroughly evaluated for additional disease manifestations. Cardiac sarcoidosis and neurosarcoidosis may be life-threatening. Clinicians need to assess patients comprehensively using clinical, laboratory, imaging, and histopathological data to recommend competently the best and least toxic treatment option for the individual patient.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1623-1634
Number of pages12
JournalTherapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
StatePublished - Nov 7 2016


  • Chronic granulomatous diseases
  • Diagnostic tests
  • Immunosuppressive agents
  • Sarcoidosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Safety Research
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Chemical Health and Safety


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