Management of advanced breast cancer in Africa: Strategies in the absence of hormone receptor assay data

L. C. Chiedozi, M. E. Lippman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations


The oncologist in Africa and many other third world countries is hampered in the management of breast cancer by the absence of hormone receptor assays in most teaching hospitals. The little information that is available in the literature on hormone receptors in black, breast cancer patients as well as other available hormone receptor information can serve as a data base for the development of a rational approach to this management dilemma. Using the available information, an approach, in the form of a flow chart, has been developed for the management of breast cancer in Africa. It is further suggested that breast cancer should be managed using protocols designed to answer various questions about breast cancer in Africa.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)57-61
Number of pages5
JournalInternational Surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 1985


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

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