Mailed HPV self-sampling for cervical cancer screening among underserved minority women: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Erin Kobetz, Julia Seay, Anthony Amofah, Larry Pierre, Jordan Baeker Bispo, Dinah Trevil, Martha Gonzalez, Martine Poitevien, Tulay Koru-Sengul, Olveen Carrasquillo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Background: Underserved ethnic minority women experience significant disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality, mainly due to lack of cervical cancer screening. Barriers to Pap smear screening include lack of knowledge, lack of health insurance and access, and cultural beliefs regarding disease prevention. In our previous SUCCESS trial, we demonstrated that HPV self-sampling delivered by a community health worker (CHW) is efficacious in circumventing these barriers. This approach increased screening uptake relative to navigation to Pap smear screening. SUCCESS trial participants, as well as our community partners, provided feedback that women may prefer the HPV self-sampler to be delivered through the mail, such that they would not need to schedule an appointment with the CHW. Thus, our current trial aims to elucidate the efficacy of the HPV self-sampling method when delivered via mail. Design: We are conducting a randomized controlled trial among 600 Haitian, Hispanic, and African-American women from the South Florida communities of Little Haiti, Hialeah, and South Dade. Women between the ages of 30 and 65 years who have not had a Pap smear within the past 3 years are eligible for the study. Women are recruited by CHWs and complete a structured interview to assess multilevel determinants of cervical cancer risk. Women are then randomized to receive HPV self-sampling delivered by either the CHW (group 1) or via mail (group 2). The primary outcome is completion of HPV self-sampling within 6 months post enrollment. Discussion: Our trial is among the first to examine the efficacy of the mailed HPV self-sampling approach. If found to be efficacious, this approach may represent a cost-effective strategy for cervical cancer screening within underserved and underscreened minority groups. Trial registration:, NCT02202109. Registered on 9 July 2014.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number19
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 13 2017


  • Cervical cancer
  • HPV
  • Haitian
  • Hispanic
  • Immigrant
  • Screening

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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