Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a copper- and lysyl-tyrosyl cofactor containing amine oxidase that has been known to play a critical role in the catalysis of lysine-derived crosslinks in extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the dermis. Changes in the composition and crosslinked state of the ECM and alterations in LOX synthesis and activity are known to be associated with aging and a range of acquired and heritable skin disorders. It has been assumed until recently that the LOX-related changes in the skin are mediated through the catalytic activity of LOX. However, work by several laboratories over the last few years has shown that LOX is a multifunctional protein. In this review we discuss the regulation of expression, localization and activation of LOX in the normal developing and adult skin, and alterations in LOX expression and activity associated with skin aging and senescence, and in pathological conditions, including wound healing, fibrosis, hypertrophic scarring, keloids, scleroderma, and diabetic skin. We further evaluate the role of LOX in skin ECM changes associated with the normal aging process and with these pathological states. In addition to collagen and elastin cross-linkages, regulatory and activation mechanisms and cell type specific LOX interactions may contribute to a range of novel intra- and extracellular LOX functions that appear critical determinants of the cellular microenvironment in the normal skin and in these skin disorders.
- Lysyl oxidase
- Skin diseases
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine