Cellular Perforin-2 (MPEG1) is a pore-forming MACPF family protein that plays a critical role in the defense against bacterial pathogens. Macrophages, neutrophils, and several other cell types that are part of the front line of innate defenses constitutively express high levels of Perforin-2; whereas, most other cell types must be induced to express Perforin-2 by interferons (α, β and γ) and/or PAMPs such as LPS. In this study, we demonstrate that many bacterial pathogens can limit the expression of Perforin-2 in cells normally inducible for Perforin-2 expression, while ordinarily commensal or non-pathogenic bacteria triggered high levels of Perforin-2 expression in these same cell types. The mechanisms by which pathogens suppress Perforin-2 expression was explored further using Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and cultured MEFs as well as intestinal epithelial cell lines. These studies identified multiple factors required to minimize the expression of Perforin-2 in cell types inducible for Perforin-2 expression. These included the PmrAB and PhoPQ two-component systems, select LPS modification enzymes and the Type III secretion effector protein AvrA.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases