Lower prediagnostic serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration is associated with higher risk of insulin-requiring diabetes: A nested case-control study

E. D. Gorham, C. F. Garland, A. A. Burgi, S. B. Mohr, K. Zeng, H. Hofflich, J. J. Kim, C. Ricordi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

34 Scopus citations


Aims/hypothesis Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25 (OH)D] concentration may increase risk of insulinrequiring diabetes. Methods A nested case-control study was performed using serum collected during 2002-2008 from military service members. One thousand subjects subsequently developed insulin-requiring diabetes. A healthy control was individually matched to each case on blood-draw date (±2 days), age (±3 months), length of service (±30 days) and sex. The median elapsed time between serum collection and first diagnosis of diabetes was 1 year (range 1 month to 10 years). Statistical analysis used matched pairs and conditional logistic regression. Results ORs for insulin-requiring diabetes by quintile of serum 25(OH)D, from lowest to highest, were 3.5 (95% CI 2.0, 6.0), 2.5 (1.5, 4.2), 0.8 (0.4, 1.4), 1.1 (0.6, 2.8) and 1.0 (reference) (ptrend >0.001). The quintiles (based on fifths using serum 25(OH)D concentration in the controls) of serum 25(OH)D in nmol/l, were >43 (median 28), 43-59 (median 52), 60-77 (median 70), 78-99 (median 88) and ≤100 (median 128). Conclusions/interpretation Individuals with lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations had higher risk of insulinrequiring diabetes than those with higher concentrations. A 3.5-fold lower risk was associated with a serum 25 (OH)D concentration ≤60 nmol/l.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3224-3227
Number of pages4
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2012



  • 25-Hydroxyvitamin D
  • Insulin-requiring diabetes
  • Military populations
  • Nested case-control study
  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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