Background and objective African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans with lupus are the two most common minority groups who receive kidney transplants in the USA. It is unknown if African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans with lupus have similar outcomes after kidney transplantation. In this study, we assessed whether African-Americans compared to Hispanic-Americans have worse kidney allograft survival after risk factors of rejection and other prognostic factors were matched between both groups. Methods Out of 1816 African-Americans and 901 Hispanic-Americans with lupus, who received kidney transplants between 1987 and 2006 and had complete records in the UNOS program, 478 pairs were matched in 16 baseline predictors and follow-up time employing a predicted probability of group membership. The primary outcome was kidney allograft survival. Main secondary outcomes were rejection, allograft failure attributed to rejection, and mortality. Results Matched pairs were predominantly women (81%) with the mean age of 36 years. 96% were on dialysis before transplantation. 89% of recipients received kidneys from deceased donors and 15.5% from expanded criteria donors. 12% of recipients had zero HLA mismatch. African-Americans compared to Hispanic-Americans had lower cumulative allograft survival during 12-year follow-up (p < 0.001). African-Americans compared to Hispanic-Americans had higher rates of rejection (10.4 vs 6.73 events/100 patients-years; p = 0.0002) and allograft failure attributed to rejection (6.31 vs 3.99; p = 0.0023). However, African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans had similar mortality rates (2.71 vs 2.31; p = 0.4269). Conclusions African-Americans compared to Hispanic-Americans with lupus had lower kidney allograft survival when recognized risk factors of rejection were matched between groups.
- kidney transplantation outcomes
- lupus nephritis
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