Longitudinal effects of acculturation and enculturation on mental health: Does the measure of matter?

Alan Meca, Seth J Schwartz, Charles R. Martinez, Heather H. McClure

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


A great deal of research has focused on acculturation and enculturation, which represent the processes of adapting to a new culture. Despite this growing literature, results have produced inconsistent findings that may be attributable to differences in terms of the instruments used to assess acculturation and enculturation. Utilizing a 3-year longitudinal data set (with 1-year lags between assessments), the present study explored the psychometric properties of the Bicultural Involvement Questionnaire - Short Version (BIQ-S) and the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans II (ARSMA-II) and examined the overlap between changes in these measures as they relate to internalizing and externalizing problem behavior. The present sample consisted of 216 immigrant Latino youth (43% boys; mean age 13.6 years at baseline; SD = 1.44 years, range 10 to 17). Exploratory structural equation modeling identified factor structures for the BIQ-S and ARSMA-II that diverged from their hypothesized structure. Growth curve models also indicate divergence between the BIQ-S and ARSMA-II in terms of change in acculturation and enculturation processes. Finally, the present findings emphasized that measures of acculturation and enculturation are not equivalent in terms of their effects on internalizing and externalizing problems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalDevelopment and Psychopathology
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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