Long-term exposure to indoor air pollution and risk of tuberculosis

Vidhiben Patel, Andrew Foster, Alison Salem, Amit Kumar, Vineet Kumar, Biplab Biswas, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Naresh Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Indoor air pollution (IAP) is a recognized risk factor for various diseases. This paper examines the role of indoor solid fuel exposure in the risk of mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) in Delhi Metropolitan, India. Using a cross-sectional design, subjects were screened for a history of active TB and lifelong exposure to IAP sources, such as solid fuel burning and kerosene. The TB prevalence rate in the study area was 1117 per 100 000 population. Every year, increase in solid fuel exposure was associated with a three percent higher likelihood of a history of active TB. Subjects exposed to solid fuel and kerosene use for both heating home and cooking showed significant associations with TB. Age, household expenditure (a proxy of income), lung function, and smoking also showed significant associations with TB. Smokers and solid fuel–exposed subjects were four times more likely to have a history of active TB than non-smoker and unexposed subjects. These finding calls strategies to mitigate solid fuel exposure, such as use of clean cookstove and ventilation, to mitigate the risk of TB which aligns with the United Nations’ goal of “End TB by 2030.”.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)628-638
Number of pages11
JournalIndoor Air
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2021


  • Delhi
  • air pollution
  • indoor air pollution
  • lifelong exposure
  • solid fuel
  • tuberculosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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