Lithium and GSK-3: One inhibitor, two inhibitory actions, multiple outcomes

Richard S. Jope

Research output: Contribution to journalShort surveypeer-review

393 Scopus citations


The intrigue of lithium, the simplest drug in the modern pharmacopoeia, extends from its complex actions in cells to its therapeutic effects as a mood stabilizer. New surprises from studies of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) show that lithium reduces GSK-3 activity in two ways, both directly and by increasing the inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK-3. These dual effects can act in concert to magnify the influence of lithium on crucial GSK-3-regulated functions (gene expression, cell structure and survival).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)441-443
Number of pages3
JournalTrends in Pharmacological Sciences
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 2003
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology


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