Literature review of Florida red tide

Implications for human health effects

Barbara Kirkpatrick, Lora E. Fleming, Dominick Squicciarini, Lorrie C. Backer, Richard Clark, William Abraham, Janet Benson, Yung Sung Cheng, David Johnson, Richard Pierce, Julia Zaias, Gregory D. Bossart, Daniel G. Baden

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

225 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Florida red tides are a natural phenomenon caused by dense aggregations of single cell or several species of unicellular organisms. Patches of discolored water, dead or dying fish, and respiratory irritants in the air often characterize these algal blooms. In humans, two distinct clinical entities, depending on the route of exposure, are associated with exposure to the Florida red tide toxins (particularly the brevetoxins). With the ingestion of brevetoxin-contaminated shellfish, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) presents as a milder gastroenteritis with neurologic symptoms compared with other marine toxin diseases such as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) or ciguatera fish poisoning. With the inhalation of the aerosolized red tide toxins (especially the brevetoxins) from the sea spray, respiratory irritation and possibly other health effects are reported in both humans and other mammals [Nat. Toxins Drugs (1995) 141; Fleming, L.E., Baden, D.G., 1988. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning: public health and human health effects. White Paper for the Proceedings of the Texas Conference on Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning. In: Proceedings of the Texas NSP Conference, Corpus Christi, TX, pp. 27-34; Travel Med, 2 (10) (1998b) 1; Travel Med. 3 (10) (1999a) 1; Toxins Pathol. 26 (2) (1998) 276; J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 69 (1982) 418; Arch. Intern. Med. 149 (1989) 1735; Toxicon 24 (1986) 955; Florida Med. J. 60 (11) (1773) 27; J. Nat. Toxins 4 (1995) 181; J. Nat. Toxins 4 (1995) 181; Sci. Am. 271 (4) (1994) 62]. This paper reviews the literature on the known and possible human health effects of exposure to the Florida red tides and their toxins. The review includes discussion of the red tide organisms and their toxins, as well as the effects of these toxins on both wild and laboratory animals as they relate to possible human health effects and exposures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)99-115
Number of pages17
JournalHarmful Algae
Volume3
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2004

Fingerprint

brevetoxins
red tide
shellfish
poisoning
literature review
algal blooms
neurotoxic shellfish poisoning
human health
toxin
toxins
paralytic shellfish poisoning
travel
gastroenteritis
allergy
ciguatera
fish
arch
exposure pathways
spray
public health

Keywords

  • Brevetoxins
  • Florida red tide
  • HAB
  • Harmful algal bloom
  • Karenia brevis
  • Marine toxin diseases
  • Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning
  • NSP
  • Red tide
  • Respiratory irritation
  • Shellfish poisoning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aquatic Science

Cite this

Kirkpatrick, B., Fleming, L. E., Squicciarini, D., Backer, L. C., Clark, R., Abraham, W., ... Baden, D. G. (2004). Literature review of Florida red tide: Implications for human health effects. Harmful Algae, 3(2), 99-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2003.08.005

Literature review of Florida red tide : Implications for human health effects. / Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Fleming, Lora E.; Squicciarini, Dominick; Backer, Lorrie C.; Clark, Richard; Abraham, William; Benson, Janet; Cheng, Yung Sung; Johnson, David; Pierce, Richard; Zaias, Julia; Bossart, Gregory D.; Baden, Daniel G.

In: Harmful Algae, Vol. 3, No. 2, 01.04.2004, p. 99-115.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kirkpatrick, B, Fleming, LE, Squicciarini, D, Backer, LC, Clark, R, Abraham, W, Benson, J, Cheng, YS, Johnson, D, Pierce, R, Zaias, J, Bossart, GD & Baden, DG 2004, 'Literature review of Florida red tide: Implications for human health effects', Harmful Algae, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 99-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2003.08.005
Kirkpatrick B, Fleming LE, Squicciarini D, Backer LC, Clark R, Abraham W et al. Literature review of Florida red tide: Implications for human health effects. Harmful Algae. 2004 Apr 1;3(2):99-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2003.08.005
Kirkpatrick, Barbara ; Fleming, Lora E. ; Squicciarini, Dominick ; Backer, Lorrie C. ; Clark, Richard ; Abraham, William ; Benson, Janet ; Cheng, Yung Sung ; Johnson, David ; Pierce, Richard ; Zaias, Julia ; Bossart, Gregory D. ; Baden, Daniel G. / Literature review of Florida red tide : Implications for human health effects. In: Harmful Algae. 2004 ; Vol. 3, No. 2. pp. 99-115.
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