Liquefaction sand boils in san francisco during 1989 loma prieta earthquake

J. P. Bardet, M. Kapuskar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


This paper presents and analyzes the observations of the sand boils that emerged in the Marina District of San Francisco after the Loma Prieta Earthquake of October 17, 1989. The sand boils were located within the boundary of an old lagoon, the periphery of which was severely damaged in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. During the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, the soils underlying the Marina District amplified the ground motion as in 1906 and caused the liquefaction of the superficial sandy materials that were used to fill the old lagoon in 1915. Damage in the Marina District was concentrated along the edges of the old lagoon. The sand boils left behind by liquefaction were useful to delineate the liquefied area and to understand the ground displacement in the Marina District. The sand boils covered uniformly the liquefied area that experienced lateral spreading and settlement. The present work also indicates the high damage potential of transition zones between liquefiable and nonliquefiable soils.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)543-562
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Geotechnical Engineering
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1993
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)


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