Lipid panel reference intervals for Amazon Parrots (Amazona species)

Michelle Ravich, Carolyn Cray, Laurie Hess, Kristopher L. Arheart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


The lipoprotein panel is a useful diagnostic tool that allows clinicians to evaluate blood lipoprotein fractions. It is a standard diagnostic test in human medicine but is poorly understood in avian medicine. Amazon parrots (Amazona species) are popular pets that frequently lead a sedentary lifestyle and are customarily fed high-fat diets. Similar to people with comparable diets and lifestyles, Amazon parrots are prone to obesity and atherosclerosis. In human medicine, these conditions are typically correlated with abnormalities in the lipoprotein panel. To establish reference intervals for the lipoprotein panel in Amazon parrots, plasma samples from 31 captive Amazon parrots were analyzed for concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). The data were also grouped according to sex, diet, body condition score, and age. Aside from HDL levels, which were significantly different between male and female parrots, no intergroup differences were found for any of the lipoprotein fractions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)209-215
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1 2014


  • Amazon parrot
  • Amazona species
  • atherosclerosis
  • avian
  • cholesterol
  • HDL
  • high-density lipoprotein
  • LDL
  • lipids
  • lipoprotein panel
  • low-density lipoprotein
  • triglyceride
  • very low-density lipoprotein
  • VLDL


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