Levels of trauma: A multidimensional approach to the treatment of ptsd

Arieh Y. Shalev, Tamar Galai, Spencer Eth

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28 Scopus citations


THE HISTORICAL course of professional interest in psychological trauma in the 20th century parallels the cycle of intrusion and denial characteristic of traumatized individuals, in which periods of recognition and concern alternate with times of forgetfulness and neglect (Glass et al. 1966; Ingraham et al. 1986). The inclusion of the diagnostic category of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd ed. (DSM-III-1980) inescapably confronted the mental health community with the problem of psychic trauma and catalyzed the quest for a deeper understanding of the disorder. This has led to a variety of explanatory models from such distant fields as neurobiology (Krystal et al. 1989; Pitman 1989; van der Kolk et al. 1985), psychophysiology (Kolb 1987), learning theory (Keane et al. 1985), psychoanalysis (Krystal 1978; Laufe 1988), cognitive psychology (Janoff Bulman 1985), and existential-humanistic philosophy (Lifton 1988).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)166-177
Number of pages12
JournalPsychiatry (New York)
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 1993
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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