Liver disease is an important comorbidity following kidney transplantation, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been demonstrated to be the leading cause of this complication. Anti-HCV-positive kidney transplant recipients have a higher risk for developing proteinuria, chronic rejection, infections, glomerulonephritis and new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT). Together with progressive liver disease in some patients, these complications all contribute to inferior patient and graft survival rates observed in anti-HCV-positive patients when compared to their uninfected counterparts. The increased mortality in the anti-HCV-positive cohort is largely as a result of a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease, liver disease and infections. HCV can also contribute to the development of some extrahepatic neoplasias, such as posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease. HCV infection is also an independent risk factor for graft loss, likely contributed to by the development of NODAT, chronic rejection/transplant glomerulopathy and HCV-related glomerulonephritis. Despite the increased comorbidities associated with kidney transplant in the HCV-infected patient, transplantation offers the best long-term outcomes for the end-stage renal disease patient with HCV infection. Finally, several interventions designed to minimize the potentially adverse consequences of HCV infection should be considered in the posttransplant setting. Adjustment of immunosuppression and careful follow-up in the outpatient clinic for early detection of proteinuria, renal insufficiency, infection, NODAT, neoplasia or worsening of liver disease are important components of the posttransplant care of the patient with HCV infection.