Ki-67 staining is a strong predictor of distant metastasis and mortality for men with prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy plus androgen deprivation: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial 92-02

A. Pollack, M. Desilvio, L. Y. Khor, R. Li, T. I. Al-Saleem, M. E. Hammond, V. Venkatesan, C. A. Lawton, M. Roach, W. U. Shipley, G. E. Hanks, H. M. Sandler

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120 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: The Ki-67 staining index (Ki67-SI) has been associated with prostate cancer patient outcome; however, few studies have involved radiotherapy (RT)-treated patients. The association of Ki67-SI to local failure (LF), biochemical failure (BF), distant metastasis (DM), cause-specific death (CSD) and overall death (OD) was determined in men randomly assigned to short term androgen deprivation (STAD) + RT or long-term androgen deprivation (LTAD) + RT. Patients and Methods: There were 537 patients (35.5%) on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 92-02 who had sufficient tissue for Ki67-SI analysis. Median follow-up was 96.3 months. Ki67-SI cut points of 3.5% and 7.1% were previously found to be related to patient outcome and were examined here in a Cox proportional hazards multivariate analysis (MVA). Ki67-SI was also tested as a continuous variable. Covariates were dichotomized in accordance with stratification and randomization criteria. Results: Median Ki67-SI was 6.5% (range, 0% to 58.2%). There was no difference in the distribution of patients in the Ki-67 analysis cohort (n = 537) and the other patients in RTOG 92-02 (n = 977) by any of the covariates or end points tested. In MVAs, Ki67-SI (continuous) was associated with LF (P = .08), BF (P = .0445), DM (P < .0001 ), CSD (P < .0001 ), and OD (P = .0094). When categoric variables were used in MVAs, the 3.5% Ki67-SI cut point was not significant. The 7.1% cut point was related to BF (P = .09), DM (P = .0008), and CSD (P = .017). Ki67-SI was the most significant correlate of DM and CSD. A detailed analysis of the hazard rates for DM in all possible covariate combinations revealed subgroups of patients treated with STAD + RT that did not require LTAD. Conclusion: Ki67-SI was the most significant determinant of DM and CSD and was also associated with OD. The Ki67-SI should be considered for the stratification of patients in future trials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2133-2140
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Clinical Oncology
Volume22
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2004
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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    Pollack, A., Desilvio, M., Khor, L. Y., Li, R., Al-Saleem, T. I., Hammond, M. E., Venkatesan, V., Lawton, C. A., Roach, M., Shipley, W. U., Hanks, G. E., & Sandler, H. M. (2004). Ki-67 staining is a strong predictor of distant metastasis and mortality for men with prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy plus androgen deprivation: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial 92-02. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 22(11), 2133-2140. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2004.09.150