A control volume analysis is presented in this paper to analyze the jet effect on the coflow jet airfoil with injection and suction and on the airfoil with injection only. The formulations to calculate the duct's reactionary forces that must be included for the lift and drag calculation are given. The computational fluid dynamics solutions based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes model are used to provide the breakdowns of lift and drag contributions from the airfoil surface force integral and jet duct's reactionary forces. The results are compared with experiment for validation. The duct reactionary forces are also validated with the result of a 3-D computational fluid dynamics calculation of the complete airfoil with jet ducts and wind tunnel walls. The study indicates that the suction occurring on the airfoil suction surface of the coflow jet airfoil is more beneficial than the suction occurring through the engine inlet such as the airfoil with injection only. For the airfoil with injection only, the drag actually acted on the aircraft, or the equivalent drag, is significantly larger than the drag measured by the wind tunnel balance due to the ram drag and captured area drag when the jet is drawn from the freestream. For a coflow jet airfoil, the drag measured by the wind tunnel balance is the actual 2-D drag that the aircraft will experience. A coflow jet airfoil does not have the ram drag and captured area drag. For a coflow jet airfoil, the suction penalty is offset by the significant circulation enhancement. The coflow jet airfoil with both injection and suction yields stronger mixing, larger circulation, more filled wake, higher stall angle of attack, less drag, and lower energy expenditure.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Aerospace Engineering