Ischemic brain injury in diabetes and endoplasmic reticulum stress

Ashish K. Rehni, Sunjoo Cho, Kunjan R. Dave

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Diabetes is a widespread disease characterized by high blood glucose levels due to abnormal insulin activity, production, or both. Chronic diabetes causes many secondary complications including cardiovascular disease: a life-threatening complication. Cerebral ischemia-related mortality, morbidity, and the extent of brain injury are high in diabetes. However, the mechanism of increase in ischemic brain injury during diabetes is not well understood. Multiple mechanisms mediate diabetic hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia-induced increase in ischemic brain injury. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress mediates both brain injury as well as brain protection after ischemia-reperfusion injury. The pathways of ER stress are modulated during diabetes. Free radical generation and mitochondrial dysfunction, two of the prominent mechanisms that mediate diabetic increase in ischemic brain injury, are known to stimulate the pathways of ER stress. Increased ischemic brain injury in diabetes is accompanied by a further increase in the activation of ER stress. As there are many metabolic changes associated with diabetes, differential activation of the pathways of ER stress may mediate pronounced ischemic brain injury in subjects suffering from diabetes. We presently discuss the literature on the significance of ER stress in mediating increased ischemia-reperfusion injury in diabetes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number105219
JournalNeurochemistry International
Volume152
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2022

Keywords

  • Cell death
  • Cerebral ischemia
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Unfolded protein response

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Cell Biology

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