The enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and the related plague agent Y. pestis require the Ysc type III secretion system (T3SS) to subvert phagocyte defense mechanisms and cause disease. Yet type III secretion (T3S) in Yersinia induces growth arrest and innate immune recognition, necessitating tight regulation of the T3SS. Here we show that Y. pseudotuberculosis T3SS expression is kept low under anaerobic, iron-rich conditions, such as those found in the intestinal lumen where the Yersinia T3SS is not required for growth. In contrast, the Yersinia T3SS is expressed under aerobic or anaerobic, iron-poor conditions, such as those encountered by Yersinia once they cross the epithelial barrier and encounter phagocytic cells. We further show that the [2Fe-2S] containing transcription factor, IscR, mediates this oxygen and iron regulation of the T3SS by controlling transcription of the T3SS master regulator LcrF. IscR binds directly to the lcrF promoter and, importantly, a mutation that prevents this binding leads to decreased disseminated infection of Y. pseudotuberculosis but does not perturb intestinal colonization. Similar to E. coli, Y. pseudotuberculosis uses the Fe-S cluster occupancy of IscR as a readout of oxygen and iron conditions that impact cellular Fe-S cluster homeostasis. We propose that Y. pseudotuberculosis has coopted this system to sense entry into deeper tissues and induce T3S where it is required for virulence. The IscR binding site in the lcrF promoter is completely conserved between Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis. Deletion of iscR in Y. pestis leads to drastic disruption of T3S, suggesting that IscR control of the T3SS evolved before Y. pestis split from Y. pseudotuberculosis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology