Treatment options for Helicobacter pylori-independent gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (GML) include surgery, immunotherapy, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy (RT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of RT and routine endoscopic surveillance, hypothesizing that most patients are curable with RT alone. We queried a single institution database at a tertiary referral cancer center for patients with H pylori-independent GML treated with RT between 1991 and 2017. Response was assessed by follow-up endoscopies (EGDs) starting 10 to 12 weeks post-RT. Computed tomography scans were also part of the follow-up program, and positron emission tomography was added when clinically appropriate. We identified 178 patients (median age, 63 years; range, 25-89 years); 86% had stage I disease, 7% had stage II disease, and 7% had stage IV disease. Median RT dose was 3000 cGy over 20 fractions. Ninety-five percent of patients exhibited complete pathologic response on posttreatment EGD. Two patients experienced grade 3 toxicity, and 2 patients experienced in-field secondary malignancies. Over a median follow-up of 6.2 years, 9.6% experienced local failures, and 11.8% developed distant sites of disease. Five-year and 10-year overall survival were 94% and 79%, respectively, from last date of RT. RT is a highly effective and safe treatment for GML with excellent overall survival and very rare acute or late treatment-related toxicities. Favorable outcomes from this large retrospective sample of patients provide credible and compelling support for RT as standard of care for H pylori-independent GML.
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