Investigating particle emissions and aerosol dynamics from a consumer fused deposition modeling 3D printer with a lognormal moment aerosol model

Qian Zhang, Girish Sharma, Jenny P.S. Wong, Aika Y. Davis, Marilyn S. Black, Pratim Biswas, Rodney J. Weber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations

Abstract

Particle emissions from consumer-fused deposition modeling 3D printers have been reported previously; however, the complex processes leading to observed aerosols have not been investigated. We measured particle concentrations and size distributions between 7 nm and 25 μm emitted from a 3D printer under different conditions in an emission test chamber. The experimental data was combined with a moment lognormal aerosol dynamic model to better understand particle formation and subsequent evolution mechanisms. The model was based on particles being formed from nucleation of unknown semivolatile compounds emitted from the heated filament during printing, which evolve due to condensation of emitted vapors and coagulation, all within a small volume near the printer extruder nozzle. The model captured observed steady state particle number size distribution parameters (total number, geometric mean diameter and geometric standard deviation) with errors nominally within 20%. Model solutions provided a range of vapor generation rates, saturation vapor pressures and vapor condensation factors consistent with measured steady state particle concentrations and size distributions. Vapor generation rate was a crucial factor that was linked to printer extruder temperature and largely accounted for differences between filament material and brands. For the unknown condensing vapor species, saturation vapor pressures were in the range of 10−3 to 10−1 Pa. The model suggests particles could be removed by design of collection surfaces near the extruder tip.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1099-1111
Number of pages13
JournalAerosol Science and Technology
Volume52
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 3 2018
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Mark Swihart

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Pollution

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