Electrical impedance myography (EIM) is as an experimental technique that associates muscle impedance with muscular activity. Changes in muscle impedance during contraction occur mainly due to changes in the morphological and physiological characteristics of muscles that lead to different impeditivities in comparison with the resting condition. There is no consensus on the details of muscular impedance during muscle activity. EIM measurements on humans are also influenced by factors such as the electrode-skin interface, layers of skin and fat, and the connective tissue that can generate undesirable effects in the impedance signal. These effects can be avoided if EIM measurements are carried out directly on the muscle by using the models of animals. This study investigates changes in the EIM signal in the gastrocnemius muscles of Wistar rats during different levels of muscular contraction. In vivo experiments were conducted on 19 male rats. The muscle was exposed, fixed on a load cell, and electrically stimulated to evoke different levels of muscle contraction. Signals of the components of impedance were analyzed against the muscular force signal. The results show moderate correlations (p < 0.05) among the impedance-related parameters of resistance (r = -0.76), reactance (r = 0.57), and phase (r = 0.53). In addition to providing an experimental protocol for the invasive collection of data on electrical impedance to minimize problems associated with surface electrodes, this study shows that of the components of impedance, resistance is most affected by the intensity of muscular contractions and that morphological changes influence impedance mainly at low intensities.
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