Purpose: To review evidence and provide updated guidelines on intravitreal (IVT) injection technique and monitoring. Methods: A review of the published literature on IVT injection from 2004 to 2014 formed the basis for round table deliberations by an expert panel of ophthalmologists. Results: The dramatic increase in the number of IVT injections has been accompanied by a comparable increase in evidence surrounding IVT practice patterns and techniques. The expert panel identified a number of areas that have evolved since publication of the original IVT injection guidelines in 2004, the most notable of which were a lack of evidence to support the routine use of pre-, peri-, and postinjection antibiotics to reduce the risk of endophthalmitis, and the role of aerosolized droplets containing oral contaminants from the patient and/or providers as a potential source of infection. The panel emphasized the continued importance of applying povidone-iodine to and avoiding eyelid contact with the intended injection site and needle. Conclusion: Updated guidelines on IVT injection technique and monitoring are proposed based on a review of published literature and expert panel deliberations.
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