The source of pulmonary collateral circulation varies according to the nature, location and duration of the inciting pathological process. Bronchial, intercostal, internal mammary, brachiocephalic and other arteries that arise in the mediastinum from the aorta or its branches are the major source of pulmonary arterial collateral circulation. The bronchial veins and mediastinal veins are interconnected with the azygos, vertebral, mediastinal, and thoracic wall veins. They constitute the major venous pathways of the collateral circulation. Anomalous arteries and veins may be recognized radiologically as the cause of a variety of intrathoracic, extracardiac shunts.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging