Intrastromal corneal ring segments for the treatment of irregular astigmatism

George D. Kymionis, Dimitrios I. Bouzoukis, Payman Haft, Charambos S. Siganos, Sonia Yoo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Intrastromal corneal ring (ICR; INTACS; Addition Technology, Inc., IL, USA) segments were first designed to provide a refractive adjustment by flattening the central corneal curvature while maintaining a prolate aspheric shape in the central optical zone. In contrast to excimer laser refractive techniques, ICR preserves corneal tissue and does not involve the central optical zone. Owing to these tissue-conserving properties, ICR has been proposed as an interesting surgical alternative in patients with corneal ectatic disorders. The treatment options for patients with corneal ectatic diseases and abnormal astigmatism depend on the severity of the disease. In patients with spectacle correction, ICR does not improve visual acuity and rigid contact lenses are not well tolerated; ICR seems to be an interesting, minimally invasive prekeratoplastic surgical technique. There are several publications in the literature supporting the safety and efficacy of this technique in patients with corneal ectatic diseases and abnormal astigmatism. ICR is considered to be a safe, reversible and minimally invasive procedure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)9-15
Number of pages7
JournalExpert Review of Ophthalmology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2008


  • Ectasia
  • Femtosecond laser
  • Intrastromal corneal ring segment
  • Keratoconus
  • Pellucid marginal degeneration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Optometry


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