Objective: To evaluate the use of microscope mounted spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to detect changes in retinal anatomy during macular surgery. Design: Retrospective, observational case series. Participants: We included 25 eyes of 24 consecutive patients who underwent SD-OCT during macular surgery. Methods: A retrospective review of operative techniques, outcomes, and imaging for all patients who underwent intraoperative microscope mounted SD-OCT during surgery for macular hole or epiretinal membrane (ERM) from April 2009 to April 2010 was performed. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of intraoperative and postoperative changes in retinal anatomy were studied. Main Outcome Measures: Intraoperative change in macular hole dimensions and retinal thickness in patients with ERM owing to surgical manipulation measured using SD-OCT. Results: Intraoperative SD-OCT from 13 eyes of 13 patients undergoing surgery for macular hole was reviewed. Two cases had images of suboptimal quality and were excluded. The remaining 11 eyes were subjected to quantitative analysis, which revealed stability of macular hole height and central hole diameter after internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, but an increase in the diameter of subretinal fluid under the macula in ten of 11 eyes (average 87% wider). Intraoperative imaging from 12 eyes of 11 patients undergoing surgery for ERM was analyzed. Quantitative analysis revealed an average increase of retinal thickness after ILM peel of <2%. Ten of 12 eyes developed a new subretinal hyporeflectance, which likely represents shallow detachment of the macula, after uncomplicated membrane peel. Conclusions: Use of intraoperative SD-OCT has provided new insight into the changes to retinal anatomy during macular surgery and may prove to be a useful tool for vitreoretinal surgery. Further study is warranted to determine whether intraoperative changes such as the creation of shallow retinal detachments during uncomplicated macular surgery affects visual recovery. Financial Disclosure(s): Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references.
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