Interrelationships of Cadmium, Smoking, and Angina in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a Cross-Sectional Study

Eric M. Hecht, Kristopher L. Arheart, David J Lee, Charles H. Hennekens, WayWay Hlaing

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The interrelationships between cadmium biomarker levels, smoking, and myocardial infarction and stroke have been established. In this cross-sectional analysis, we explored the interrelationships of blood cadmium levels, smoking, and angina. We analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2003-2014) accounting for the multi-staged complex sampling design. Participants 40-79 years of age with blood cadmium levels but without a history of myocardial infarction and/or stroke were included (n = 14,832). We examined blood cadmium levels (3 tertile groups) in relation to 3 (diagnosed, undiagnosed, and composite diagnosed and/or undiagnosed) angina outcomes. Multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, diabetes, smoking status, and household income were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Of 14,832 participants, 741 (4.2%) had positive composite angina. The crude and adjusted ORs comparing those in the lowest tertile (referent group) of blood cadmium to those in the highest tertile for the composite outcome were 1.82 (95% CI 1.42-2.34) and 1.45 (95% CI 1.12-1.88), respectively. These cross-sectional data from a nationally representative sample contribute to the hypothesis that there are interrelationships between smoking, cadmium, and angina.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)177-182
Number of pages6
JournalCardiology (Switzerland)
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019



  • Angina
  • Cadmium
  • National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
  • Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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