International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury

M. S. Alexander, F. Biering-Sorensen, D. Bodner, Nancy Brackett, D. Cardenas, S. Charlifue, G. Creasey, V. Dietz, J. Ditunno, W. Donovan, S. L. Elliott, I. Estores, D. E. Graves, B. Green, A. Gousse, A. B. Jackson, M. Kennelly, A. K. Karlsson, A. Krassioukov, K. Krogh & 12 others T. Linsenmeyer, R. Marino, C. J. Mathias, I. Perkash, A. W. Sheel, G. Shilero, B. Schurch, J. Sonksen, S. Stiens, J. Wecht, L. A. Wuermser, J. J. Wyndaele

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

143 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Study design: Experts opinions consensus. Objective: To develop a common strategy to document remaining autonomic neurologic function following spinal cord injury (SCI). Background and Rationale: The impact of a specific SCI on a person's neurologic function is generally described through use of the International Standards for the Neurological Classification of SCI. These standards document the remaining motor and sensory function that a person may have; however, they do not provide information about the status of a person's autonomic function. Methods: Based on this deficiency, the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) and the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) commissioned a group of international experts to develop a common strategy to document the remaining autonomic neurologic function. Results: Four subgroups were commissioned: bladder, bowel, sexual function and general autonomic function. On-line communication was followed by numerous face to face meetings. The information was then presented in a summary format at a course on Measurement in Spinal Cord Injury, held on June 24, 2006. Subsequent to this it was revised online by the committee members, posted on the websites of both ASIA and ISCoS for comment and re-revised through webcasts. Topics include an overview of autonomic anatomy, classification of cardiovascular, respiratory, sudomotor and thermoregulatory function, bladder, bowel and sexual function. Conclusion: This document describes a new system to document the impact of SCI on autonomic function. Based upon current knowledge of the neuroanatomy of autonomic function this paper provides a framework with which to communicate the effects of specific spinal cord injuries on cardiovascular, broncho-pulmonary, sudomotor, bladder, bowel and sexual function.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)36-43
Number of pages8
JournalSpinal Cord
Volume47
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 28 2009

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Spinal Cord Injuries
Urinary Bladder
Autonomic Nervous System
Spinal Cord
Webcasts
Committee Membership
Neuroanatomy
Spinal Injuries
Expert Testimony
Nervous System
Anatomy
Consensus
Communication
Lung

Keywords

  • Autonomic nervous system
  • Human
  • International standards
  • Spinal cord injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology

Cite this

Alexander, M. S., Biering-Sorensen, F., Bodner, D., Brackett, N., Cardenas, D., Charlifue, S., ... Wyndaele, J. J. (2009). International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord, 47(1), 36-43. https://doi.org/10.1038/sc.2008.121

International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury. / Alexander, M. S.; Biering-Sorensen, F.; Bodner, D.; Brackett, Nancy; Cardenas, D.; Charlifue, S.; Creasey, G.; Dietz, V.; Ditunno, J.; Donovan, W.; Elliott, S. L.; Estores, I.; Graves, D. E.; Green, B.; Gousse, A.; Jackson, A. B.; Kennelly, M.; Karlsson, A. K.; Krassioukov, A.; Krogh, K.; Linsenmeyer, T.; Marino, R.; Mathias, C. J.; Perkash, I.; Sheel, A. W.; Shilero, G.; Schurch, B.; Sonksen, J.; Stiens, S.; Wecht, J.; Wuermser, L. A.; Wyndaele, J. J.

In: Spinal Cord, Vol. 47, No. 1, 28.01.2009, p. 36-43.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Alexander, MS, Biering-Sorensen, F, Bodner, D, Brackett, N, Cardenas, D, Charlifue, S, Creasey, G, Dietz, V, Ditunno, J, Donovan, W, Elliott, SL, Estores, I, Graves, DE, Green, B, Gousse, A, Jackson, AB, Kennelly, M, Karlsson, AK, Krassioukov, A, Krogh, K, Linsenmeyer, T, Marino, R, Mathias, CJ, Perkash, I, Sheel, AW, Shilero, G, Schurch, B, Sonksen, J, Stiens, S, Wecht, J, Wuermser, LA & Wyndaele, JJ 2009, 'International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury', Spinal Cord, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 36-43. https://doi.org/10.1038/sc.2008.121
Alexander MS, Biering-Sorensen F, Bodner D, Brackett N, Cardenas D, Charlifue S et al. International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2009 Jan 28;47(1):36-43. https://doi.org/10.1038/sc.2008.121
Alexander, M. S. ; Biering-Sorensen, F. ; Bodner, D. ; Brackett, Nancy ; Cardenas, D. ; Charlifue, S. ; Creasey, G. ; Dietz, V. ; Ditunno, J. ; Donovan, W. ; Elliott, S. L. ; Estores, I. ; Graves, D. E. ; Green, B. ; Gousse, A. ; Jackson, A. B. ; Kennelly, M. ; Karlsson, A. K. ; Krassioukov, A. ; Krogh, K. ; Linsenmeyer, T. ; Marino, R. ; Mathias, C. J. ; Perkash, I. ; Sheel, A. W. ; Shilero, G. ; Schurch, B. ; Sonksen, J. ; Stiens, S. ; Wecht, J. ; Wuermser, L. A. ; Wyndaele, J. J. / International standards to document remaining autonomic function after spinal cord injury. In: Spinal Cord. 2009 ; Vol. 47, No. 1. pp. 36-43.
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