International one-atmosphere equation of state of seawater

Frank J. Millero, Alain Poisson

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437 Scopus citations


The density measurements by Millero, Gonzalez and Ward (1976, Journal of Marine Research,34, 61-93) and Poisson, Brunet and Brun-Cottan (1980, Deep-Sea Research, 27, 1013-1028), from 0 to 40°C and 0.5 to 43 salinity, have been used to determine a new 1-atm equation of state for seawater. The equation is of the form (t°C; S; ρ{variant} kg m-3)ρ=ρ0+AS+BS 3 2+CS, where A=8.24493×10-1-4.0899×10-3t+7.6438×10-5t2-8.2467×10-7t3+5.3875×10-9t4B=-5.72466×10-3+1.0227×10-4t-1.6546×10-6t2C=4.8314×10-4 and ρ{variant}0 is the density of water (Bigg, 1967, British Journal of Applied Physics, 8, 521-537). ρ0=999.842594+6.793952×10-2t-9.095290×-3t2+1.001685×10-4t3-1.120083×10-6t4+6.536336×10-9t5. The standard error of the equation is 3.6 × 10-3 kg m-3. This equation will become the new 1-atm equation of state of seawater that has been suggested for use by the UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) joint panel on oceanographic tables and standards.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)625-629
Number of pages5
JournalDeep Sea Research Part A, Oceanographic Research Papers
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1981
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)


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