Interaction between nitric oxide and angiotensin II in the endothelium: Role in atherosclerosis and hypertension

Ivonne H Schulman, Ming Sheng Zhou, Leopoldo Raij

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

67 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Although there is overwhelming evidence that hypertension promotes atherosclerosis, the relative contribution and/or interaction of vasoactive and hemodynamic factors remain undefined. Endothelial dysfunction complicates hypertension and is a precursor of atherosclerosis. It is characterized by a reduction in the bioavailability of vasodilators, particularly nitric oxide, and an increase in the activity of vasoconstrictors, including angiotensin (Ang) II and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nitric oxide antagonizes the vasoconstrictive and pro-atherosclerotic effects of Ang II, whereas Ang II decreases nitric oxide bioavailability by promoting oxidative stress. OBJECTIVES: The present review will focus on the interaction among nitric oxide, Ang II, and ROS in the endothelium and will examine their role in vascular tone and atherogenesis. In this context, studies from our laboratory will be reviewed demonstrating that salt-sensitive hypertension is a vascular diathesis characterized by a local activation of Ang II and NAD(P)H oxidase-derived ROS in the setting of insufficient nitric oxide. In hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats, a paradigm of human salt-sensitive hypertension, inhibition of Ang II type 1 receptor or NAD(P)H oxidase-derived ROS prevented the development of endothelial dysfunction, upregulation of pro-atherogenic molecules, and vascular ROS generation, independently of blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Salt sensitivity, an independent risk factor for increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, affects approximately 50% of hypertensives. Our studies suggest that, in salt-sensitive hypertension, atherogenesis is more closely linked to oxidative stress than to the hemodynamic stress of hypertension. To prevent or arrest atherosclerosis, antihypertensive therapy should aim at restoring the homeostatic balance between vasoactive factors in the vascular wall. vascular wall.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Hypertension
Volume24
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2006

Fingerprint

Angiotensin II
Endothelium
Atherosclerosis
Nitric Oxide
Reactive Oxygen Species
Hypertension
Blood Vessels
Salts
NADPH Oxidase
Biological Availability
Oxidative Stress
Hemodynamics
Inbred Dahl Rats
Angiotensin Type 1 Receptor
Disease Susceptibility
Vasoconstrictor Agents
Vasodilator Agents
Antihypertensive Agents
Up-Regulation
Blood Pressure

Keywords

  • Atherosclerosis
  • Endothelium
  • Free radicals
  • Hypertension
  • Nitric oxide
  • Renin-angiotensin system
  • Sodium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology

Cite this

Interaction between nitric oxide and angiotensin II in the endothelium : Role in atherosclerosis and hypertension. / Schulman, Ivonne H; Zhou, Ming Sheng; Raij, Leopoldo.

In: Journal of Hypertension, Vol. 24, No. SUPPL. 1, 01.03.2006.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Although there is overwhelming evidence that hypertension promotes atherosclerosis, the relative contribution and/or interaction of vasoactive and hemodynamic factors remain undefined. Endothelial dysfunction complicates hypertension and is a precursor of atherosclerosis. It is characterized by a reduction in the bioavailability of vasodilators, particularly nitric oxide, and an increase in the activity of vasoconstrictors, including angiotensin (Ang) II and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nitric oxide antagonizes the vasoconstrictive and pro-atherosclerotic effects of Ang II, whereas Ang II decreases nitric oxide bioavailability by promoting oxidative stress. OBJECTIVES: The present review will focus on the interaction among nitric oxide, Ang II, and ROS in the endothelium and will examine their role in vascular tone and atherogenesis. In this context, studies from our laboratory will be reviewed demonstrating that salt-sensitive hypertension is a vascular diathesis characterized by a local activation of Ang II and NAD(P)H oxidase-derived ROS in the setting of insufficient nitric oxide. In hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats, a paradigm of human salt-sensitive hypertension, inhibition of Ang II type 1 receptor or NAD(P)H oxidase-derived ROS prevented the development of endothelial dysfunction, upregulation of pro-atherogenic molecules, and vascular ROS generation, independently of blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Salt sensitivity, an independent risk factor for increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, affects approximately 50{\%} of hypertensives. Our studies suggest that, in salt-sensitive hypertension, atherogenesis is more closely linked to oxidative stress than to the hemodynamic stress of hypertension. To prevent or arrest atherosclerosis, antihypertensive therapy should aim at restoring the homeostatic balance between vasoactive factors in the vascular wall. vascular wall.",
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N2 - BACKGROUND: Although there is overwhelming evidence that hypertension promotes atherosclerosis, the relative contribution and/or interaction of vasoactive and hemodynamic factors remain undefined. Endothelial dysfunction complicates hypertension and is a precursor of atherosclerosis. It is characterized by a reduction in the bioavailability of vasodilators, particularly nitric oxide, and an increase in the activity of vasoconstrictors, including angiotensin (Ang) II and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nitric oxide antagonizes the vasoconstrictive and pro-atherosclerotic effects of Ang II, whereas Ang II decreases nitric oxide bioavailability by promoting oxidative stress. OBJECTIVES: The present review will focus on the interaction among nitric oxide, Ang II, and ROS in the endothelium and will examine their role in vascular tone and atherogenesis. In this context, studies from our laboratory will be reviewed demonstrating that salt-sensitive hypertension is a vascular diathesis characterized by a local activation of Ang II and NAD(P)H oxidase-derived ROS in the setting of insufficient nitric oxide. In hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats, a paradigm of human salt-sensitive hypertension, inhibition of Ang II type 1 receptor or NAD(P)H oxidase-derived ROS prevented the development of endothelial dysfunction, upregulation of pro-atherogenic molecules, and vascular ROS generation, independently of blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Salt sensitivity, an independent risk factor for increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, affects approximately 50% of hypertensives. Our studies suggest that, in salt-sensitive hypertension, atherogenesis is more closely linked to oxidative stress than to the hemodynamic stress of hypertension. To prevent or arrest atherosclerosis, antihypertensive therapy should aim at restoring the homeostatic balance between vasoactive factors in the vascular wall. vascular wall.

AB - BACKGROUND: Although there is overwhelming evidence that hypertension promotes atherosclerosis, the relative contribution and/or interaction of vasoactive and hemodynamic factors remain undefined. Endothelial dysfunction complicates hypertension and is a precursor of atherosclerosis. It is characterized by a reduction in the bioavailability of vasodilators, particularly nitric oxide, and an increase in the activity of vasoconstrictors, including angiotensin (Ang) II and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nitric oxide antagonizes the vasoconstrictive and pro-atherosclerotic effects of Ang II, whereas Ang II decreases nitric oxide bioavailability by promoting oxidative stress. OBJECTIVES: The present review will focus on the interaction among nitric oxide, Ang II, and ROS in the endothelium and will examine their role in vascular tone and atherogenesis. In this context, studies from our laboratory will be reviewed demonstrating that salt-sensitive hypertension is a vascular diathesis characterized by a local activation of Ang II and NAD(P)H oxidase-derived ROS in the setting of insufficient nitric oxide. In hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats, a paradigm of human salt-sensitive hypertension, inhibition of Ang II type 1 receptor or NAD(P)H oxidase-derived ROS prevented the development of endothelial dysfunction, upregulation of pro-atherogenic molecules, and vascular ROS generation, independently of blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Salt sensitivity, an independent risk factor for increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, affects approximately 50% of hypertensives. Our studies suggest that, in salt-sensitive hypertension, atherogenesis is more closely linked to oxidative stress than to the hemodynamic stress of hypertension. To prevent or arrest atherosclerosis, antihypertensive therapy should aim at restoring the homeostatic balance between vasoactive factors in the vascular wall. vascular wall.

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KW - Sodium

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