Insulator-to-metal transition in polyaniline: Effect of protonation in emeraldine

A. J. Epstein, J. M. Ginder, F. Zuo, H. S. Woo, D. B. Tanner, A. F. Richter, M. Angelopoulos, W. S. Huang, A. G. MacDiarmid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

154 Scopus citations


The emeraldine base form of the polymer can be varied from insulating (σ ∼ 10-10 ohm-1 cm-1) to conducting (σ ∼ 100 ohm-1 cm-1) states through protonation. Based upon extensive magnetic, optical and transport data, we demonstrate that the resulting emeraldine salt is metallic with a finite density of states at the Fermi energy. The roles of a novel bipolaron-to-polaron lattice transition and phase segregation into conducting and non-conducting regions are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)63-70
Number of pages8
JournalSynthetic Metals
Issue number1-3
StatePublished - 1987
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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