Instructional behaviors of more and less effective beginning regular and special educators.

E. J. Nowacek, J. D. McKinney, D. P. Hallahan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


To enhance understanding of effective teaching, we studied 117 elementary and intermediate secondary general and special educators who were more and less effective in maintaining class participation. We performed MANOVAs on 22 variables associated with positive student outcomes in the process-product literature and found that teachers who maintained higher levels of participation provided effective transitions, made assignments, and approved of students' verbal responses more often than less effective educators. In addition, they demonstrated negative regard less often than less effective teachers. They also acknowledged learner-initiated interactions and employed strategies for managing student inattention and disruption less frequently than teachers who were less effective in maintaining active student involvement. We also found differences in the frequencies with which elementary and secondary teachers and general and special educators exhibited specific behaviors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)140-149
Number of pages10
JournalExceptional children
Issue number2
StatePublished - Oct 1 1990

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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