Injectable pharmacotherapy for opioid use disorders (IPOD)

David Farabee, Maureen Hillhouse, Timothy Condon, Barbara McCrady, Kathryn McCollister, Walter Ling

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Background: Despite the growing prevalence of opioid use among offenders, pharmacotherapy remains an underused treatment approach in correctional settings. The aim of this 4-year trial is to assess the clinical utility, effectiveness, and cost implications of extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX, Vivitrol® Alkermes Inc.) alone and in conjunction with patient navigation for jail inmates with opioid use disorder (OUD). Methods: Opioid-dependent inmates will be randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions before being released to the community to include: 1) XR-NTX only; 2) XR-NTX plus patient navigation (PN), and 3) enhanced treatment-as-usual (ETAU) with drug education and a community treatment referral. Before release from jail, participants in the XR-NTX and XR-NTX plus PN conditions will receive their first XR-NTX injection. Those in the XR-NTX plus PN condition also will meet with a patient navigator. Participants in both XR-NTX conditions will be scheduled for medical management sessions twice monthly for months 1-3, monthly medical management sessions for months 4-6, with monthly injections for 5 months post-release (which, given the pre-release injection, results in a 6-month medication phase). Follow-up data collection will occur at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post release. Results: We discuss the study's rationale, aims, methods, and anticipated findings. The primary outcome is the presence of a DSM 5 OUD diagnosis 1 year after randomization (6 months after the end of the active treatment phase). Discussion: We hypothesize that providing XR-NTX prior to release from jail will be particularly beneficial for this extremely high-risk population by reducing opioid use, associated criminal behavior, and injection-related disease risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)70-77
Number of pages8
JournalContemporary Clinical Trials
StatePublished - Jul 1 2016


  • Experimental
  • Extended release naltrexone
  • Injectable naltrexone
  • Jail inmates
  • Opioid dependence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)


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