Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) stimulates the proliferation and invasiveness of malignant prostatic cells. Receptors for VIP and the closely related growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH) show considerable homology and are found in prostatic and other carcinomas. Among various analogs of GH-RH synthesized, JV-1-52 is a non-selective VIP/GH-RH antagonist, whereas JV-1-53 is a VIP antagonist devoid of GH-RH antagonistic effect. In our study, nude mice bearing PC-3 human androgen-independent prostate carcinomas were treated with JV-1-52 or JV-1-53 (20 μg/day, s.c.) for 28 days. Both antagonists produced a similar reduction in tumor volume (62-67%, p < 0.01) and tumor weight (59-62%; p < 0.05) vs. controls and extended tumor doubling-time from 9.1 to about 16 days (p < 0.05). To investigate the mechanisms involved, in another study we compared the effects of JV-1-53 with those of somatostatin analog RC-160. VIP antagonist JV-1-53 reduced tumor weight by 67% (p < 0.01) and suppressed the expression of mRNA for c-fos and c-jun oncogenes by about 34% (p < 0.05), without affecting serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). In conRC-160 (50 μg/day) reduced serum IGF-I by 19% (p < 0.05), but did not significantly decrease tumor weight, mRNA for VIP and high affinity receptors for VIP were detected on PC-3 tumors. Our results suggest that VIP/GH-RH antagonists can inhibit the growth of androgen-independent prostate cancer by abrogating the autocrine/paracrine mitogenic stimuli of VIP. The ability of GH-RH antagonists to block tumoral VIP receptors, in addition to GH-RH receptors, could be potentially beneficial for prostate cancer therapy.
- Androgen-independent prostate cancer
- Antagonist of vasoactive intestinal peptide
- Growth hormone-releasing hormone
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research