Inhibition of human androgen-independent PC-3 and DU-145 prostate cancers by antagonists of bombesin and growth hormone releasing hormone is linked to PKC, MAPK and c-jun intracellular signalling

Anton Stangelberger, Andrew V Schally, Jozsef L. Varga, Marta Zarandi, Ren Zhi Cai, Benjamin Baker, Brian D. Hammann, Patricia Armatis, Celia A. Kanashiro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

38 Scopus citations


Bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide (BN/GRP) antagonists RC-3940-II and RC-3940-Et, and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) antagonists MZ-J-7-118 and RC-J-29-18 inhibit the growth of human androgen-independent PC-3 and DU-145 prostate cancers in nude mice. Additive inhibitory effects were observed after treatment with both classes of analogs. In the present study, we investigated the effects of these antagonists on intracellular signalling pathways of protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) and c-fos and c-jun oncogenes that are involved in tumour cell proliferation. In PC-3 tumours, antagonists of BN/GRP and GHRH decreased significantly the expression of PKC isoforms alpha (α), eta (η) and zeta (ζ) and increased that of delta (δ) PKC protein. MAPK was not detectable. In DU-145 tumours, which constitutively express MAPK, all treatments strongly decreased the levels of p42/44 MAPK. Treatment with the antagonists tended to reduce m-RNA for c-jun in both tumour models. In proliferation assays in vitro, inhibitors of PKC and MAPK diminished growth of DU-145 and PC-3 cells. These findings suggest that antagonists of BN/GRP and GHRH inhibit the growth of androgen-independent prostate cancer by affecting intracellular signalling mechanisms of PKC, MAPK and c-jun.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2735-2744
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Cancer
Issue number17
StatePublished - Nov 1 2005
Externally publishedYes



  • c-fos
  • c-jun
  • DU-145
  • MAP-kinases
  • PC-3
  • PKC isoforms
  • Prostate cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Hematology
  • Oncology

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