Post transplantation constrictive bronchiolitis (PTCB) is the most common pulmonary complication among long-term survivors of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). It is a late manifestation of GVHD. Its treatment with high-dose systemic corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive regimens is associated with multiple side effects. Topical corticosteroids are used for the treatment of other manifestations of GVHD to minimize these side effects. We conducted a retrospective analysis of a series of adult patients to evaluate the efficacy of high-dose inhaled corticosteroids in the treatment of PTCB. Seventeen patients with new-onset airflow obstruction were diagnosed with PTCB. Their forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1) declined from a median of 84% (range, 56-119) before HSCT to 53% (26-82) after HSCT. All patients received inhaled fluticasone propionate 500-940μg two times daily. Symptoms of airway obstruction improved and FEV1 stabilized 3-6 months after treatment. We conclude that high-dose inhaled corticosteroids may be effective in the treatment of PTCB and propose a plausible mechanism of its action. A prospective evaluation of its efficacy is warranted.
ASJC Scopus subject areas