OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the clinical presentation of lead-associated endocarditis (LAE) is related to the size of lead vegetations and how size is related to bacteriology and clinical outcomes. BACKGROUND: Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infection may present as either local pocket infection or bloodstream infection with or without LAE. LAE is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. METHODS: The clinical presentation and course of LAE were evaluated by the MEDIC (Multicenter Electrophysiologic Device Cohort) registry, an international registry enrolling patients with CIED infection. Consecutive LAE patients enrolled in the MEDIC registry between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2012 were analyzed. The clinical features and outcomes of 2 groups of patients were compared based on the size of the lead vegetation detected by echocardiography (> or <1 cm in diameter). RESULTS: There were 129 patients with LAE enrolled into the MEDIC registry. Of these, 61 patients had a vegetation <1 cm in diameter (Group I) whereas 68 patients had a vegetation ≥1 cm in diameter (Group II). Patients in Group I more often presented with signs of local pocket infection, whereas Group II patients presented with clinical evidence of systemic infection. Staphylococcus aureus was the organism most often responsible for LAE, whereas infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci was associated with larger vegetations. Outcomes were improved among those who underwent complete device removal. However, major complications were associated with an open surgical approach for device removal. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical presentation of LAE is influenced by the size of the lead vegetation. Prompt recognition and management of LAE depends on obtaining blood cultures and echocardiography, including transesophageal echocardiography, in CIED patients who present with either signs of local pocket or systemic infection.
- implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
- permanent pacemaker
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging