Influence of Sugar Availability and Indoor Microclimate on Survival of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) under Semifield Conditions in Western Kenya

Bernard A. Okech, Louis C. Gouagna, Gerard F. Killeen, Bart G.J. Knols, Ephantus W. Kabiru, John C. Beier, Guiyan Yan, John I. Githure

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52 Scopus citations


The influence of indoor microclimate on survival of female Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto Giles (Diptera: culicidae) mosquitoes fed on different nutrition sources was evaluated in a semifield experimental hut exposed to ambient climate in western Kenya. Cages of mosquitoes (n ≈ 50 per cage) were placed in nine positions within the hut combining three different sides and three different heights. At each height and side, mosquitoes were offered either human blood (once every 2d), glucose (6% wt:vol) or a combination of the two diets over three experiments so that each cage position received one diet source. The effect of diet on survival was significant with mean survival times of 14 d for mosquitoes fed blood alone, 29 d for sugar alone and 33 d for blood plus sugar. Sugar availability decreased the odds of mortality ≈85% compared with the blood group. Micro heterogeneities of temperature but not relative humidity also influenced survival although to a much lesser extent. The side but not height within the hut at which mosquitoes were placed, influenced survival but could not be explained by either temperature or relative humidity differences. The potential influence of seemingly minor heterogeneities of indoor microclimate upon vector longevity and vectorial capacity may merit further investigation. Also, the availability of sugar was shown to be a potentially crucial determinant of vectorial capacity. Compared with blood alone, the availability of sugar served to increase survival potential of vectors beyond ages at which they are old enough to transmit malaria.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)657-663
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of medical entomology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2003
Externally publishedYes



  • Anopheles survival
  • Blood
  • Indoor climate
  • Sugar
  • Vectorial capacity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Insect Science
  • veterinary(all)

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