The mechanisms causing brain damage after acute subdural hematoma (SDH) are poorly understood. A decrease in cerebral blood flow develops immediately after the hematoma forms, thus reducing cerebral oxygenation. This in turn may activate mitochondrial failure and tissue damage leading to ionic imbalance and possibly to cellular breakdown. The purpose of this study was to test whether a simple therapeutic measure, namely increased fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 100), and hence increased arterial and brain tissue oxygen tension, can influence brain glucose and lactate dynamics acutely after subdural hematoma in the rat. Twenty-five male Sprague-Dawley anesthetized rats were studied before, during and after induction of the SDH in two separate groups. The Oxygen group (n = 10) was ventilated with 100% oxygen immediately after induction of the SDH. The Air group (n = 10) was ventilated during the entire study with 21% oxygen. Brain microdialysate samples were analyzed for glucose and lactate. All rats were monitored with femoral arterial blood pressure catheters, arterial blood gas analysis, arterial glucose, lactate and end tidal CO2 (EtCO2). Five male Sprague-Dawley rats were sham operated to measure the effect of oxygen challenge on glucose-lactate dynamics without injury. Arterial oxygen tension in the Oxygen group was 371 ± 30 mmHg and was associated with significantly greater increase in dialysate lactate in the first 30 min after induction of SDH. Dialysate glucose initially dropped in both groups, after SDH, but then reverted significantly faster to values above baseline in the Oxygen group. Changes in ventilatory parameters had no significant effect on dialysate glucose and lactate parameters in the sham group. Extracellular dialysate lactate and glucose are influenced by administration of 100% O2 after SDH. Dialysate glucose normalizes significantly quicker upon 100% oxygen ventilation. We hypothesize that increased neural tissue oxygen tension, in presence of reduced regional CBF, and possibly compromised mitochondrial function, after acute SDH results in upregulation of rate-limiting enzyme systems responsible for both glycolytic and aerobic metabolism. Similar changes have been seen in severe human head injury, and suggest that a simple therapeutic measure, such as early ventilation with 100% O2, may improve cerebral energy metabolism, early after SDH. Further studies to measure the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) are needed to validate the hypothesis.
- Severe traumatic brain injury
- Subdural hematoma
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology