Background: Contemporary data regarding percutaneous closure of atrial septal defect/patent foramen ovale (ASD/PFO) are lacking. We evaluated the current trends in utilization of ASD/PFO closure in adults and investigated the effect of annual hospital volume on in-hospital outcomes. Methods: We queried the Nationwide Inpatient Sample between the years 2001 and 2010 using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9-CM) procedure code for percutaneous closure of ASD/PFO with device. Hierarchical mixed effects models were generated to identify the independent multivariate predictors of outcomes. Results: A total of 7,107 percutaneous ASD/PFO closure procedures (weighted n = 34,992) were available for analysis. A 4.7-fold increase in the utilization of this procedure from 3/million in 2001 to 14/million adults in 2010 in US (P < 0.001) was noted. Overall, percutaneous ASD/PFO closure was associated with 0.5% mortality and 12% in-hospital complications. The utilization of intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) increased 15 fold (P < 0.001) during the study period. The procedures performed at the high volume hospitals [2nd (14-37 procedures/year) and 3rd (>38 procedures/year) tertile] were associated with significant reduction in complications, length of stay and cost of hospitalization when compared to those performed at lowest volume centers (<13 procedures/year). Majority (70.5%) of the studied hospitals were found to be performing <10 procedures/year hence deviating from the ACC/AHA/SCAI clinical competency guidelines. Conclusions: Low hospital volume is associated with an increased composite (mortality and procedural complications) adverse outcome following ASD/PFO closure. In the interest of patient safety, implementation of the current guidelines for minimum required annual hospital volume to improve clinical outcomes is warranted.
- atrial septal defect
- closure complication
- length of stay
- patent foramen ovale
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging