Influence of different methods of synchronized mechanical ventilation on ventilation, gas exchange, patient effort, and blood pressure fluctuations in premature neonates

Helmut Hummler, Tilo Gerhardt, Alvaro Gonzalez, Nelson R Claure, Ruth Everett-Thomas, Eduardo Bancalari

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Abstract

We studied the effects of two methods of synchronized mechanical ventilation [synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) and assist/control (A/C)] on ventilation, gas exchange, patient effort, and arterial blood pressure (ABP) fluctuations. SIMV and A/C were applied in random order in 12 preterm neonates (gestational age, 29.7 ± 2.3 weeks; birth weight, 1,217 ± 402 g). We measured total (V̇e(tot)) and mechanical (V̇e(mech)) minute ventilation, spontaneous (V̇t(spont)) and ventilator supported (V̇t(mech)) tidal volume, transcutaneous oxygen saturation (Sp(O2)), transcutaneous P(O2) (TcP(O2)), and P(CO2), (TcP(CO2)), mean airway pressure (Paw), phasic esophageal pressure deflections (Pe) as an estimate of inspiratory effort, mean arterial blood pressure (ABP), and beat- to-beat ABP fluctuations. The measurements obtained during conventional intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) were compared with the recordings during SIMV and NO. To make the measurement conditions comparable and to prevent hyperventilation, peak inspiratory pressure was reduced during the A/C mode so that V̇e(tot) remained in the same range as during the IMV mode. Whereas Vε(tot) was similar in all three conditions by study design, V̇e(mech) was larger during SIMV and NC than during IMV. Vt(mech) increased during SIMV and by study design was smaller during A/C than during IMV. Pe decreased during SIMV and A/C compared with IMV, and Paw was higher during A/C than during IMV or SIMV. Beat-to-beat ABP fluctuations were reduced during SIMV and A/C compared with IMV and showed a close positive correlation with Pe changes. We conclude that SIMV increases V̇e(mech) and reduces Pe compared with IMV, resulting in smaller intrathoracic and ABP fluctuations. During A/C, a substantial portion of the spontaneous respiratory effort is shifted to the ventilator, resulting in a further decrease in Pe and ABP fluctuations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)305-313
Number of pages9
JournalPediatric Pulmonology
Volume22
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 1996

Fingerprint

Artificial Respiration
Ventilation
Gases
Newborn Infant
Blood Pressure
Arterial Pressure
Mechanical Ventilators
Pressure
Hyperventilation
Tidal Volume
Birth Weight

Keywords

  • assisted ventilation
  • blood pressure
  • mechanical ventilators
  • Premature infant
  • respiration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Cite this

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title = "Influence of different methods of synchronized mechanical ventilation on ventilation, gas exchange, patient effort, and blood pressure fluctuations in premature neonates",
abstract = "We studied the effects of two methods of synchronized mechanical ventilation [synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) and assist/control (A/C)] on ventilation, gas exchange, patient effort, and arterial blood pressure (ABP) fluctuations. SIMV and A/C were applied in random order in 12 preterm neonates (gestational age, 29.7 ± 2.3 weeks; birth weight, 1,217 ± 402 g). We measured total (V̇e(tot)) and mechanical (V̇e(mech)) minute ventilation, spontaneous (V̇t(spont)) and ventilator supported (V̇t(mech)) tidal volume, transcutaneous oxygen saturation (Sp(O2)), transcutaneous P(O2) (TcP(O2)), and P(CO2), (TcP(CO2)), mean airway pressure (Paw), phasic esophageal pressure deflections (Pe) as an estimate of inspiratory effort, mean arterial blood pressure (ABP), and beat- to-beat ABP fluctuations. The measurements obtained during conventional intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) were compared with the recordings during SIMV and NO. To make the measurement conditions comparable and to prevent hyperventilation, peak inspiratory pressure was reduced during the A/C mode so that V̇e(tot) remained in the same range as during the IMV mode. Whereas Vε(tot) was similar in all three conditions by study design, V̇e(mech) was larger during SIMV and NC than during IMV. Vt(mech) increased during SIMV and by study design was smaller during A/C than during IMV. Pe decreased during SIMV and A/C compared with IMV, and Paw was higher during A/C than during IMV or SIMV. Beat-to-beat ABP fluctuations were reduced during SIMV and A/C compared with IMV and showed a close positive correlation with Pe changes. We conclude that SIMV increases V̇e(mech) and reduces Pe compared with IMV, resulting in smaller intrathoracic and ABP fluctuations. During A/C, a substantial portion of the spontaneous respiratory effort is shifted to the ventilator, resulting in a further decrease in Pe and ABP fluctuations.",
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T1 - Influence of different methods of synchronized mechanical ventilation on ventilation, gas exchange, patient effort, and blood pressure fluctuations in premature neonates

AU - Hummler, Helmut

AU - Gerhardt, Tilo

AU - Gonzalez, Alvaro

AU - Claure, Nelson R

AU - Everett-Thomas, Ruth

AU - Bancalari, Eduardo

PY - 1996/11/1

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N2 - We studied the effects of two methods of synchronized mechanical ventilation [synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) and assist/control (A/C)] on ventilation, gas exchange, patient effort, and arterial blood pressure (ABP) fluctuations. SIMV and A/C were applied in random order in 12 preterm neonates (gestational age, 29.7 ± 2.3 weeks; birth weight, 1,217 ± 402 g). We measured total (V̇e(tot)) and mechanical (V̇e(mech)) minute ventilation, spontaneous (V̇t(spont)) and ventilator supported (V̇t(mech)) tidal volume, transcutaneous oxygen saturation (Sp(O2)), transcutaneous P(O2) (TcP(O2)), and P(CO2), (TcP(CO2)), mean airway pressure (Paw), phasic esophageal pressure deflections (Pe) as an estimate of inspiratory effort, mean arterial blood pressure (ABP), and beat- to-beat ABP fluctuations. The measurements obtained during conventional intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) were compared with the recordings during SIMV and NO. To make the measurement conditions comparable and to prevent hyperventilation, peak inspiratory pressure was reduced during the A/C mode so that V̇e(tot) remained in the same range as during the IMV mode. Whereas Vε(tot) was similar in all three conditions by study design, V̇e(mech) was larger during SIMV and NC than during IMV. Vt(mech) increased during SIMV and by study design was smaller during A/C than during IMV. Pe decreased during SIMV and A/C compared with IMV, and Paw was higher during A/C than during IMV or SIMV. Beat-to-beat ABP fluctuations were reduced during SIMV and A/C compared with IMV and showed a close positive correlation with Pe changes. We conclude that SIMV increases V̇e(mech) and reduces Pe compared with IMV, resulting in smaller intrathoracic and ABP fluctuations. During A/C, a substantial portion of the spontaneous respiratory effort is shifted to the ventilator, resulting in a further decrease in Pe and ABP fluctuations.

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