The transport properties of titanium dioxide (anatase polymorph) nanoparticles encapsulated by carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were evaluated as a function of changes in the solute chemical properties in clean quartz, amorphous aluminum, and iron hydroxide-coated sands. While pristine anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles (ANTNPs) were completely immobile, the presence of CMC significantly enhanced their mobility. The magnitude of the surface charge exhibited by the CMC-coated anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (CMC-ANTNPs) significantly exceeded that of the uncoated ANTNPs, thereby leading to a negative surface charge over the pH range investigated (2-10). The mobility of CMC-ANTNPs was retarded by the presence of amorphous Fe and Al hydroxide, Na+ (30 mM), and Ca2+ (30 mM). Removal of CMC-ANTNPs was more significant in the presence of either Ca2+ or Fe-hydroxide. More retardation and incomplete breakthrough of the CMC-ANTNPs was observed in the mineral-coated sands. This is possibly due to an order of magnitude increase in the surface area of mineral-coated sands compared with the clean quartz sand grains and the potential for chelation between CMC bound to ANTNPs and Fe and Al hydroxides. Chemical-colloidal interactions such as chemicomplexation and ligand exchange were the most important factor controlling mobility of CMC-ANTNPs in mineral-coated sands.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry